Precautionary Rapid Disembarkation
From SKYbrary Wiki
The present article is under construction.Reader enquiries are welcome, contact the editor: email@example.com.
Rapid Disembarkation is the urgent deplaning of passengers and crew from a parked aircraft utilizing the boarding entrance(s) and the associated airport infrastructure (jetway, airbridge or boarding stairs) or the aircraft airstairs.
There are a great number of activities that must take place to ready a large passenger aircraft for each flight. These include:
- maintenance inspection and release
- flight crew external inspection and cabin crew inspection and preparation
- [[Flight Preparation and Conducting Effective Briefings (OGHFA BN)|flight crew cockpit preparation and briefing
- baggage and freight loading/offloading
- passenger embarkation/disembarkation
Additional maintenance activity such as rectification of minor mechanical deficiencies or tyre changes may also be required and, where possible, will be accomplished at the boarding gate. Given the operational imperative to "keep the aircraft moving", every attempt is made to minimize the amount of time that an aircraft spends on the ground between flights. As a consequence, many of the activities listed above are accomplished concurrently. This often means that passenger offload or, more usually, passenger boarding is underway whilst the aircraft is being fueled, loaded and catered. In proximity to the aircraft in question, other planes are continuously arriving at or departing from adjacent gates, either under tow or self powered. There also is significant vehicular traffic in support of these aircraft.
Every effort is made to ensure that all ground support activities are carried out efficiently and safely. However, accidents occur, machinery malfunctions and situations sometimes arise which pose a potential risk to the passengers in the process of boarding. These risks might include, but are not limited to:
- fuel spills
- smoke or fumes, from a variety of potential sources, entering the aircraft cabin
- proximal fire caused by malfunctioning ground support equipment or an accident
In such cases, the most prudent course of action is often the rapid disembarkation of passengers from the affected aircraft.
The Company Operations Manual (COM), as expanded by the Company Flight Attendant Manual (FAM) and Company Ground Handling Manual, will provide guidance for ground operations inclusive of any restrictions imposed on concurrent activities. As an example, some Companies (and some airports) will not allow refueling with passengers on board unless Rescue and Fire Fighting Services are in attendance.
Whilst all crew are responsible for passenger safety, the COM should specify that any decision to initiate any unplanned disembarkation, and the method by which it will be achieved, is the responsibility of the Captain or, in his absence his designate (First Officer or Flight Attendant) or, in certain circumstances, another appropriately trained and designated Company employee. The later situation is intended to accommodate circumstances where the COM allows for commencement of passenger boarding before members of the flight crew are present.
The designated individual has overall responsibility for passenger safety during the embarkation/disembarkation process. As a consequence, the ground agent and cabin supervisor should seek the Captain's (or other designated individual) approval prior to commencing the boarding process. The designated individual should be inside the aircraft whenever passengers are embarking, on board or disembarking. Should a situation arise that has the potential to put the passengers at risk, the designated individual is responsible for determining the most appropriate course of action, initiating that action and broadcasting the intended actions to ATC with a request for any needed external assistance.
- RJ1H, Zurich Switzerland, 2006 (GND FIRE HF) On 26 January 2006, an Avro RJ100 being operated by Swiss European on a scheduled passenger service from Hanover to Zurich had reached the parking gate at destination in normal day visibility when a flash fire occurred following the connection of ground electrical power. The commander ordered an emergency evacuation but since the air bridge was already in position at the aircraft, the cabin crew decided to carry out a rapid disembarkation and all passengers and cabin crew were off the aircraft within two minutes. A flight deck fire extinguisher was used against the apparent origin of the fire, the vicinity of the First Officer’s rudder pedals.
- B763, Montreal Quebec Canada, 2013 (FIRE GND) On 4 November 2013, a Boeing 767-300 (CN-RNT) being operated by Royal Air Maroc on a scheduled passenger flight (RAM 206) from Casablanca to Montreal had just begun disembarking its 243 passengers after arriving at Montreal in daylight when a burning smell became evident in the passenger cabin. After the crew had established that the origin of the smoke was a fire in ground equipment close to the aircraft, an emergency evacuation was ordered. Seven passengers sustained minor injuries or were overcome by smoke of whom five were taken to hospital. Subsequent inspection of the aircraft found that it was undamaged.
- Refuelling with Passengers on Board
- Refuelling and Defuelling Risks
- Flight Crew Pre Flight External Check
- Loading of Aircraft with Cargo
- Passenger Cabin Loading
- Jet Efflux Hazard
- Aircraft Towing