Airport Climatology/Northern Europe
From SKYbrary Wiki
The Climate of Northern Europe
The climate of Europe is of a temperate, continental nature, with a maritime climate prevailing on the western coasts (Köppen climate classification Cfb), and a mediterranean climate in the south (Köppen climate classification Csa), while eastern Europe is continental and dry (Köppen climate classification Dfb).
The climate is strongly conditioned by the Gulf Stream, which warms the western region to levels unattainable at similar latitudes on other continents. Four seasons occur in western Europe, while southern Europe experiences a wet season and a dry season. Southern Europe is hot and dry during the summer months. Prevailing westerlies (conditioned by the Azores High), bring rain from the Atlantic ocean to the west, while the Siberian High brings colder, drier weather from the east. Eastern Europe experiences a two-season, hot and cold cycle.
Tornadoes occur within Europe, but tend to be weak. The Netherlands and United Kingdom experience a disproportionately high number of tornadic events.
The following map shows the Köppen climate classification (KCC) for aerodromes across Northern Europe which are listed on SKYbrary:
Af: equatorial climate
Am: monsoon climate
Aw: tropical savannah climate
BWh: warm desert climate
Bwk: cold desert climate
Bsh: warm semi-arid climate
Bsk: cold semi-arid climate
Csa: warm Mediterranean climate
Csb: temperate Mediterranean climate
Cwa: humid subtropical climate
Cwb: temperate China climate
Cwc: cool China climate
Cfa: warm oceanic climate/ humid subtropical climate
Cfb: temperate oceanic climate
Cfc: cool oceanic climate
Dsa: warm continental climate/ Mediterranean continental climate
Dsb: temperate continental climate/ Mediterranean continental climate
Dsc: cool continental climate
Dsd: cold continental climate
Dwa: warm continental climate/ humid continental climate
Dwb: temperate continental climate/ humid continental climate
Dwc: cool continental climate/ subarctic climate
Dwd: cold continental climate/ subarctic climate
Dfa: warm continental climate/ humid continental climate
Dfb: temperate continental climate/ humid continental climate
Dfc: cool continental climate/ subarctic climate
Dfd: cold continental climate/ subarctic climate
ET: tundra climate
EF: ice cap climate
Climatic and Weather Phenomena Affecting Aviation in Northern Europe
- Fog - Northwest Europe is prone to Fog in the late Autumn/Fall and early Winter.
- Low Temperatures - Pilots should remember to apply Altimeter Temperature Error Correction when the aerodrome temperature is 0°C32 °F
or colder, especially when the aerodrome is in mountainous terrain e.g. northern Norwegian coast in winter.