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MITIGATION OF WAKE TURBULENCE HAZARD
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{{Infobox Wake Vortex Turbulence
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|source            = SKYbrary
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|source_image      = SKYbrary
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|source_caption    = SKYbrary
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|control          = EUROCONTROL
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|control_image    = EUROCONTROL
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|control_caption  = EUROCONTROL
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}}
  
'''Summary'''
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==Description==
  
Prescribed separation for aircraft receiving an ATC control service do not necessarily provide sufficient separation to remove the risk of loss of control upon encountering the sudden uncommanded roll which can be induced when an aircraft encounters wake turbulence from a larger aircraft which is on a similar track ahead. Under a system promulgated by ICAO, minimum separations between fixed wing aircraft on approach to land or on take off into initial climb are defined by the use of aircraft categories based on aircraft type MTWA. This is judged to be a suitable proxy for the strength of the turbulence which may be created behind large jet aircraft at relatively slow speeds by the generation of wing tip wake vortices. The careful observance of these separations has prevented loss of control as a consequence of wake turbulence encounters in the flight phases where they apply but when they have been ignored, fatal accidents have followed sudden and rapid uncommanded rolls.  
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Encountering the sudden uncommanded roll which can be induced when an aircraft encounters wake turbulence from a larger aircraft on a similar track ahead, can lead to [[Loss of Control|loss of control]]. Prescribed separation for aircraft, receiving an ATC control service, do not necessarily provide sufficient separation to remove the risk of loss of control.
  
Research has been ongoing for some years now to see if runway capacity can be increased by reducing the minimum aircraft spacings which are required by the current ICAO system for airport arrivals and departures without reducing the safety margin against loss of control below the safe limit. It may be possible to define the aircraft MTWA categories differently to achieve this. Information on current work on this matter under a joint EUROCONTROL / FAA initiative can be accessed at:
+
Under a system promulgated by ICAO, minimum separation between fixed wing aircraft on approach to land, or on take off into initial climb, are defined by the use of aircraft categories based on aircraft type MTWA ([[ICAO Wake Turbulence Category]]). This is judged to be a suitable proxy for the strength of the turbulence which may be created, behind large jet aircraft at relatively slow speeds, by the generation of wing tip wake vortices. The careful observance of these separation minima has prevented loss of control, as a consequence of wake turbulence encounters in the flight phases where they apply, but when they have been ignored, fatal accidents have followed sudden and rapid uncommanded rolls.
[http://www.eurocontrol.int/eec/public/standard_page/EEC_News_2008_3_RECAT.html]
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 +
Research has been ongoing for some years now to see if runway capacity can be increased by reducing the minimum aircraft spacings, which are required by the current ICAO system for airport arrivals and departures, without reducing the safety margin against loss of control below the safe limit. It may be possible to define the aircraft MTWA categories differently to achieve this. Information on current work on this matter is the subject of a joint [http://www.eurocontrol.int/eec/public/standard_page/EEC_News_2008_3_RECAT.html EUROCONTROL / FAA initiative ]
  
 
Wake turbulence encounters in other flight phases have been recorded in controlled airspace at well above radar separation minima but have not, in recent times, led to the terminal loss of control of a large commercial transport aircraft. However, since these events often occur when cabin crew and passengers are moving about the cabin, injuries, sometimes serious ones, have sometimes resulted. To minimize the extent of this risk, many airlines specifically advise their passengers to ‘keep their seat belts fastened whilst seated even if the seat belt sign is off’
 
Wake turbulence encounters in other flight phases have been recorded in controlled airspace at well above radar separation minima but have not, in recent times, led to the terminal loss of control of a large commercial transport aircraft. However, since these events often occur when cabin crew and passengers are moving about the cabin, injuries, sometimes serious ones, have sometimes resulted. To minimize the extent of this risk, many airlines specifically advise their passengers to ‘keep their seat belts fastened whilst seated even if the seat belt sign is off’
  
  
'''Aircraft weight categories for approach and departure separation minima'''
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'''ICAO Prescribed Separation Minima'''
  
The division of aircraft according to their MTWA for the application of time or distance separation is as follows:
+
The ICAO minima are detailed and illustrated in PANS-ATM Doc 4444. They are defined for aircraft under ATC control which have not reported the preceding aircraft in sight and have been instructed to follow and maintain their own separation from that aircraft visually. If the latter occurs in the case of an IFR aircraft then the pilot-in-command of the aircraft concerned becomes responsible for ensuring that the spacing from a preceding aircraft of a heavier wake turbulence category is acceptable. 
  
 HEAVY (H) — all aircraft types of 136 000 kg or more
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The distance between two aircraft on arrival or departure is used where radar separation of traffic is being applied and the time between the successive passage of two aircraft at a point is used where procedural separation applies. Since relatively few airports use routinely use radar separation for take off and initial climb, the practical effect of this distinction on IFR traffic is that wake turbulence separations between arriving aircraft are based upon distance and those between departing aircraft are by time interval - at rotation, since this is where wake vortices begin. 
 MEDIUM (M) — aircraft types less than 136 000 kg but more than 7 000 kg
 
 LIGHT (L) — aircraft types of 7 000 kg or less
 
  
  
'''ICAO Prescribed Separation Minima'''
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==Minimum Distance Separations==
  
The ICAO minima are detailed and illustrated in PANS-ATM Doc 4444. They are defined for aircraft under ATC control which have not reported the preceding aircraft in
+
Minimum distances apply whenever:
sight and have been instructed to follow and maintain their own separation from that aircraft visually. If the latter occurs in the case of an IFR aircraft then the pilot-in-command of the aircraft concerned becomes responsible for ensuring that the spacing from a preceding aircraft of a heavier wake turbulence category is acceptable. 
 
  
The distance between two aircraft on arrival or departure is used where radar separation of traffic is being used and the time between the successive passage of two aircraft at a point is used where procedural separation applies. Since relatively few airports use routinely use radar separation for take off and initial climb, the practical effect of this distinction on IFR traffic is that wake turbulence separations between arriving aircraft are based upon distance and those between departing aircraft are by time interval - at rotation, since this is where wake vortices begin.  
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*an aircraft directly follows another at the same altitude or less than 1,000 ft below it, or
 
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*if both aircraft are using the same runway or parallel runways separated by less than 760 m or
 
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*an aircraft is crossing behind another aircraft, at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1 000 ft) below.
'''Minimum Distance Separations'''
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Minimum distances apply whenever an aircraft directly follows another at the same altitude or less than 1 000 ft below it  or if both aircraft are using the same runway or parallel runways separated by less than 760 m or an aircraft is crossing behind another aircraft, at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1 000 ft) below.
 
 
 
Preceding Aircraft    Following Aircraft    Minimum Separation  
 
Preceding Aircraft    Following Aircraft    Minimum Separation  
 
       HEAVY                  HEAVY                          4.0 NM
 
       HEAVY                  HEAVY                          4.0 NM
Line 39: Line 42:
  
  
'''Minimum Time Separations -  Successive landings or full length take offs'''
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==Minimum Time Separation: Successive Landings or Full Length Take Offs==
  
 
Minimum time separation for arriving aircraft not radar-separated is 2 minutes for a MEDIUM aircraft behind a HEAVY aircraft and 3 minutes for a LIGHT aircraft behind a HEAVY or MEDIUM aircraft.
 
Minimum time separation for arriving aircraft not radar-separated is 2 minutes for a MEDIUM aircraft behind a HEAVY aircraft and 3 minutes for a LIGHT aircraft behind a HEAVY or MEDIUM aircraft.
  
Minimum time separations for departing aircraft which are using:
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Minimum time separation for departing aircraft which are using:
the same runway or
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parallel runways separated by less than 760 m (2 500 ft) or
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*the same runway or
crossing runways if the projected flight path of the second aircraft will cross the projected flight path of the first aircraft at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1 000 ft) below or
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*parallel runways separated by less than 760 m (2 500 ft) or
parallel runways separated by 760 m (2 500 ft) or more, if the projected flight path of the second aircraft will cross the projected flight path of the first aircraft at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1 000 ft) below.
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*crossing runways if the projected flight path of the second aircraft will cross the projected flight path of the first aircraft at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1 000 ft) below or
 +
*parallel runways separated by 760 m (2 500 ft) or more, if the projected flight path of the second aircraft will cross the projected flight path of the first aircraft at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1 000 ft) below.
 +
 
 +
is 2 minutes between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft taking off behind a HEAVY aircraft and a LIGHT aircraft taking off behind a MEDIUM aircraft.
  
are 2 minutes between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft taking off behind a HEAVY aircraft and a LIGHT aircraft taking off behind a MEDIUM aircraft.
 
  
 +
==Minimum Time Separation: Intermediate Take Off After a Full Length Take Off==
  
'''Minimum Time Separations -  intermediate take off after a full length take off'''
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Minimum time separation for departing aircraft which are using:
  
Minimum time separations for departing aircraft which are using:
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*an intermediate part of the same runway; or
 +
*an intermediate part of a parallel runway separated by less than 760 m (2 500 ft).
  
 an intermediate part of the same runway; or
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is 3 minutes between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft when taking off behind a HEAVY aircraft and a LIGHT aircraft when taking off behind a MEDIUM aircraft
 an intermediate part of a parallel runway separated by less than 760 m (2 500 ft).
 
are 3 minutes between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft when taking off behind a HEAVY aircraft and a LIGHT aircraft when taking off behind a MEDIUM aircraft
 
  
  
'''Minimum Time Separations – mixed arrival/departure use with displaced threshold  '''
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==Minimum Time Separation: Mixed Arrival/Departure Use with Displaced Threshold==
  
 
Additional minimum time separations apply if the runway involved has a displaced landing threshold.  In this case, separation minimum for runways with successive arriving-departing or departing-arriving traffic  is a minimum  2 minutes between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY aircraft and between a LIGHT aircraft and a MEDIUM aircraft if:  
 
Additional minimum time separations apply if the runway involved has a displaced landing threshold.  In this case, separation minimum for runways with successive arriving-departing or departing-arriving traffic  is a minimum  2 minutes between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY aircraft and between a LIGHT aircraft and a MEDIUM aircraft if:  
  
an arriving LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows a departing HEAVY aircraft or an arriving LIGHT aircraft follows a departing MEDIUM aircraft
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*an arriving LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows a departing HEAVY aircraft or an arriving LIGHT aircraft follows a departing MEDIUM aircraft or
  
a departing LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows an arriving HEAVY aircraft or a departing LIGHT aircraft follows an arriving MEDIUM aircraft
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*a departing LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows an arriving HEAVY aircraft or a departing LIGHT aircraft follows an arriving MEDIUM aircraft and
  
if the projected flight paths are expected to cross
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*if the projected flight paths are expected to cross
  
  
'''Minimum Time Separations -  Opposite direction use by successive aircraft'''
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==Minimum Time Separation: Opposite direction use by successive aircraft==
  
 
A separation minimum of 2 minutes is required between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY aircraft and between a LIGHT aircraft and a MEDIUM aircraft when the heavier aircraft is making a low or missed approach and the lighter aircraft is:
 
A separation minimum of 2 minutes is required between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY aircraft and between a LIGHT aircraft and a MEDIUM aircraft when the heavier aircraft is making a low or missed approach and the lighter aircraft is:
  
using an opposite-direction runway for take-off or
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*using an opposite-direction runway for take-off or
  
landing on the same runway in the opposite direction or
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*landing on the same runway in the opposite direction or
  
landing on a parallel opposite-direction runway separated by
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*landing on a parallel opposite-direction runway separated by less than 760 m (2 500 ft).
less than 760 m (2 500 ft).
 
  
  
'''Prior awareness of aircraft wake turbulence category'''
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==Prior Awareness of Aircraft Wake Turbulence Category==
  
 
To improve awareness of the applicable aircraft wake turbulence category, particularly if it is ‘Heavy’ the following related requirements are also included in ICAO air traffic procedures.
 
To improve awareness of the applicable aircraft wake turbulence category, particularly if it is ‘Heavy’ the following related requirements are also included in ICAO air traffic procedures.
  
(1) The wake turbulence category of an aircraft should be included in the aircraft flight plan.
+
*The wake turbulence category of an aircraft should be included in the aircraft flight plan.
 
 
(2) For aircraft in the ‘Heavy’ wake turbulence category, the word “Heavy” is to be included immediately after the aircraft R/T call sign in the initial communication between such aircraft and ATS units.
 
 
 
 
 
'''State variations to ICAO wake turbulence separation minima'''
 
 
 
States may elect to operate variations on the ICAO scheme if they wish. One example of this is the UK where the main differences are the re-definition of the lower weight end of the ICAO ‘MEDIUM’ category:
 
 
 
 An extra category called ‘SMALL’ is defined as aircraft types with an MTWA of between 17000 kg and 40000 kg
 
 
 
 The  ‘LIGHT’ Category defined in the ICAO scheme is extended to cover aircraft types with an MTWA of up to 17000 kg
 
  
In addition an ‘UPPER MEDIUM’ aircraft type category is defined from within the ICAO ‘MEDIUM’ category (only) for approaches made at EGLL EGKK EGSS and EGCC.
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*For aircraft in the HEAVY wake turbulence category, the word “Heavy” is to be included immediately after the aircraft R/T call sign in the initial communication between such aircraft and ATS units.
  
Full details of the UK variations are contained in  UK AIC 17/1999 - see:
 
[http://www.nats-uk.ead-it.com/aip/current/aic/pink/EG_Circ_1999_P_017_en.pdf]
 
  
  
'''Helicopters'''
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==Helicopters==
  
 
Helicopters are also susceptible to the effects of wake turbulence from large fixed wing aircraft but no formal separation minima are considered necessary because of the way they operate in relation to streams of in trail fixed wing aircraft.  
 
Helicopters are also susceptible to the effects of wake turbulence from large fixed wing aircraft but no formal separation minima are considered necessary because of the way they operate in relation to streams of in trail fixed wing aircraft.  
Line 114: Line 105:
  
  
'''Further Reading'''
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==Further Reading==
  
 
ICAO Doc 9426 Air Traffic Services Planning Manual, Part II, Section 5 gives detailed characteristics of wake vortices and their effect on aircraft.  
 
ICAO Doc 9426 Air Traffic Services Planning Manual, Part II, Section 5 gives detailed characteristics of wake vortices and their effect on aircraft.  
Line 121: Line 112:
  
 
ICAO PANS-ATM-Doc 4444 specifies all minimum separation requirements defined specifically for wake turbulence purposes and has supporting illustrations of some of the cases.
 
ICAO PANS-ATM-Doc 4444 specifies all minimum separation requirements defined specifically for wake turbulence purposes and has supporting illustrations of some of the cases.
 +
 +
[[Category:Wake Vortex Turbulence]]
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[[Category: Operational Issues]]

Revision as of 16:21, 7 January 2009

Article Information
Category: Wake Vortex Turbulence Wake Vortex Turbulence
Content source: SKYbrary SKYbrary
EUROCONTROL EUROCONTROL EUROCONTROL

Description

Encountering the sudden uncommanded roll which can be induced when an aircraft encounters wake turbulence from a larger aircraft on a similar track ahead, can lead to loss of control. Prescribed separation for aircraft, receiving an ATC control service, do not necessarily provide sufficient separation to remove the risk of loss of control.

Under a system promulgated by ICAO, minimum separation between fixed wing aircraft on approach to land, or on take off into initial climb, are defined by the use of aircraft categories based on aircraft type MTWA (ICAO Wake Turbulence Category). This is judged to be a suitable proxy for the strength of the turbulence which may be created, behind large jet aircraft at relatively slow speeds, by the generation of wing tip wake vortices. The careful observance of these separation minima has prevented loss of control, as a consequence of wake turbulence encounters in the flight phases where they apply, but when they have been ignored, fatal accidents have followed sudden and rapid uncommanded rolls.

Research has been ongoing for some years now to see if runway capacity can be increased by reducing the minimum aircraft spacings, which are required by the current ICAO system for airport arrivals and departures, without reducing the safety margin against loss of control below the safe limit. It may be possible to define the aircraft MTWA categories differently to achieve this. Information on current work on this matter is the subject of a joint EUROCONTROL / FAA initiative

Wake turbulence encounters in other flight phases have been recorded in controlled airspace at well above radar separation minima but have not, in recent times, led to the terminal loss of control of a large commercial transport aircraft. However, since these events often occur when cabin crew and passengers are moving about the cabin, injuries, sometimes serious ones, have sometimes resulted. To minimize the extent of this risk, many airlines specifically advise their passengers to ‘keep their seat belts fastened whilst seated even if the seat belt sign is off’


ICAO Prescribed Separation Minima

The ICAO minima are detailed and illustrated in PANS-ATM Doc 4444. They are defined for aircraft under ATC control which have not reported the preceding aircraft in sight and have been instructed to follow and maintain their own separation from that aircraft visually. If the latter occurs in the case of an IFR aircraft then the pilot-in-command of the aircraft concerned becomes responsible for ensuring that the spacing from a preceding aircraft of a heavier wake turbulence category is acceptable.

The distance between two aircraft on arrival or departure is used where radar separation of traffic is being applied and the time between the successive passage of two aircraft at a point is used where procedural separation applies. Since relatively few airports use routinely use radar separation for take off and initial climb, the practical effect of this distinction on IFR traffic is that wake turbulence separations between arriving aircraft are based upon distance and those between departing aircraft are by time interval - at rotation, since this is where wake vortices begin.


Minimum Distance Separations

Minimum distances apply whenever:

  • an aircraft directly follows another at the same altitude or less than 1,000 ft below it, or
  • if both aircraft are using the same runway or parallel runways separated by less than 760 m or
  • an aircraft is crossing behind another aircraft, at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1 000 ft) below.


Preceding Aircraft Following Aircraft Minimum Separation

      HEAVY                  HEAVY                           4.0 NM
      HEAVY                 MEDIUM                          5.0 NM
      HEAVY                   LIGHT                            6.0 NM
      MEDIUM                 LIGHT                            5.0 NM


Minimum Time Separation: Successive Landings or Full Length Take Offs

Minimum time separation for arriving aircraft not radar-separated is 2 minutes for a MEDIUM aircraft behind a HEAVY aircraft and 3 minutes for a LIGHT aircraft behind a HEAVY or MEDIUM aircraft.

Minimum time separation for departing aircraft which are using:

  • the same runway or
  • parallel runways separated by less than 760 m (2 500 ft) or
  • crossing runways if the projected flight path of the second aircraft will cross the projected flight path of the first aircraft at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1 000 ft) below or
  • parallel runways separated by 760 m (2 500 ft) or more, if the projected flight path of the second aircraft will cross the projected flight path of the first aircraft at the same altitude or less than 300 m (1 000 ft) below.

is 2 minutes between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft taking off behind a HEAVY aircraft and a LIGHT aircraft taking off behind a MEDIUM aircraft.


Minimum Time Separation: Intermediate Take Off After a Full Length Take Off

Minimum time separation for departing aircraft which are using:

  • an intermediate part of the same runway; or
  • an intermediate part of a parallel runway separated by less than 760 m (2 500 ft).

is 3 minutes between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft when taking off behind a HEAVY aircraft and a LIGHT aircraft when taking off behind a MEDIUM aircraft


Minimum Time Separation: Mixed Arrival/Departure Use with Displaced Threshold

Additional minimum time separations apply if the runway involved has a displaced landing threshold. In this case, separation minimum for runways with successive arriving-departing or departing-arriving traffic is a minimum 2 minutes between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY aircraft and between a LIGHT aircraft and a MEDIUM aircraft if:

  • an arriving LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows a departing HEAVY aircraft or an arriving LIGHT aircraft follows a departing MEDIUM aircraft or
  • a departing LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows an arriving HEAVY aircraft or a departing LIGHT aircraft follows an arriving MEDIUM aircraft and
  • if the projected flight paths are expected to cross


Minimum Time Separation: Opposite direction use by successive aircraft

A separation minimum of 2 minutes is required between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a HEAVY aircraft and between a LIGHT aircraft and a MEDIUM aircraft when the heavier aircraft is making a low or missed approach and the lighter aircraft is:

  • using an opposite-direction runway for take-off or
  • landing on the same runway in the opposite direction or
  • landing on a parallel opposite-direction runway separated by less than 760 m (2 500 ft).


Prior Awareness of Aircraft Wake Turbulence Category

To improve awareness of the applicable aircraft wake turbulence category, particularly if it is ‘Heavy’ the following related requirements are also included in ICAO air traffic procedures.

  • The wake turbulence category of an aircraft should be included in the aircraft flight plan.
  • For aircraft in the HEAVY wake turbulence category, the word “Heavy” is to be included immediately after the aircraft R/T call sign in the initial communication between such aircraft and ATS units.


Helicopters

Helicopters are also susceptible to the effects of wake turbulence from large fixed wing aircraft but no formal separation minima are considered necessary because of the way they operate in relation to streams of in trail fixed wing aircraft.

However, helicopters also produce tip vortices when in flight. In forward flight, the downwash from the main rotor is transformed into a pair of trailing vortices comparable to the wing tip vortices generated by a fixed wing aircraft and there is some evidence that, for a given MTWA, these vortices are more intense than those from an similar-weight fixed-wing aircraft. It is therefore recommended that helicopters should be operated well clear of light aircraft when hovering or whilst air taxiing.


Further Reading

ICAO Doc 9426 Air Traffic Services Planning Manual, Part II, Section 5 gives detailed characteristics of wake vortices and their effect on aircraft.

ICAO Doc 8643 Aircraft Type Designators lists the wake turbulence category for each fixed wing aircraft type.

ICAO PANS-ATM-Doc 4444 specifies all minimum separation requirements defined specifically for wake turbulence purposes and has supporting illustrations of some of the cases.