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Difference between revisions of "Loss of Separation - Pilot-induced Situations"

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== Effects ==
 
== Effects ==
  
*Loss of separation from other aircraft may result in collision. This is especially likely when [[RVSM]] procedures are in force.
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*Loss of separation from other aircraft may result in collision. This is especially likely when [[Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM)|RVSM]] procedures are in force.
  
 
*Injury, especially to cabin crew or passengers, may result from violent manoeuvres to avoid collision with other aircraft or the ground.
 
*Injury, especially to cabin crew or passengers, may result from violent manoeuvres to avoid collision with other aircraft or the ground.
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*Onboard aircraft equipment designed to warn of potential collision with other aircraft ([[ACAS|TCAS]]).
 
*Onboard aircraft equipment designed to warn of potential collision with other aircraft ([[ACAS|TCAS]]).
  
*Ground-based equipment designed to warn of potential collision with other aircraft: ([[STCA]]).
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*Ground-based equipment designed to warn of potential collision with other aircraft: ([[Short Term Conflict Alert (STCA)|STCA]]).
  
 
== Typical Scenarios ==
 
== Typical Scenarios ==
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**Due to pilot inattention, equipment malfunction or the mis-setting of aircraft equipment;
 
**Due to pilot inattention, equipment malfunction or the mis-setting of aircraft equipment;
 
**To avoid a visually-perceived loss of separation from another aircraft;
 
**To avoid a visually-perceived loss of separation from another aircraft;
**To avoid severe weather if [[IFR]] or to remain in [[VMC]] if [[VFR]].
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**To avoid severe weather if [[Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)|IFR]] or to remain in [[Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC)|VMC]] if [[Visual Flight Rules (VFR)|VFR]].
  
 
*Pilot fails to follow ATC clearance or delays their actioning of an accepted clearance.
 
*Pilot fails to follow ATC clearance or delays their actioning of an accepted clearance.
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**Use of [[ACAS|TCAS]].
 
**Use of [[ACAS|TCAS]].
  
*Provide more and improved [[Safety Nets|safety nets]], e.g. [[STCA]].
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*Provide more and improved [[Safety Nets|safety nets]], e.g. [[Short Term Conflict Alert (STCA)|STCA]].
  
 
==Related Articles==
 
==Related Articles==

Latest revision as of 14:52, 9 October 2019

Article Information
Category: Loss of Separation Loss of Separation
Content source: SKYbrary About SKYbrary
Content control: EUROCONTROL EUROCONTROL

Description

Loss of separation between aircraft sometimes occurs as a result of an aircraft deviating from the cleared track without clearance.

Loss of separation may be either in a vertical or a horizontal plane, or both.

Effects

  • Loss of separation from other aircraft may result in collision. This is especially likely when RVSM procedures are in force.
  • Injury, especially to cabin crew or passengers, may result from violent manoeuvres to avoid collision with other aircraft or the ground.


  • High levels of stress for the pilots and controllers involved, which may lead to reduced performance.

Defences

  • Onboard aircraft equipment designed to warn of potential collision with other aircraft (TCAS).
  • Ground-based equipment designed to warn of potential collision with other aircraft: (STCA).

Typical Scenarios

  • Flight deviates from cleared track or level without clearance:
    • Due to pilot inattention, equipment malfunction or the mis-setting of aircraft equipment;
    • To avoid a visually-perceived loss of separation from another aircraft;
    • To avoid severe weather if IFR or to remain in VMC if VFR.
  • Pilot fails to follow ATC clearance or delays their actioning of an accepted clearance.
  • Pilot receives a TCAS RA but fails to follow it correctly.

Contributory Factors

  • Weather (e.g. thunderstorm activity).

Solutions

Related Articles

Further Reading

HindSight Articles: