Cabin Fumes from Non-Fire Sources
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Non Combustion-related Fumes
|Category:||Fire Smoke and Fumes|
Fumes from various non-fire related sources may sometimes be experienced within the cabins of passenger aircraft.
Most modern passenger aircraft are equipped with pressurised, climate controlled, cabins. In spite of the aircraft designers’ intentions, unwanted fumes frequently permeate the interior of the aircraft. Open doors and hatches as well as certain on-board sources can introduce fumes to the cabin environment. However the usual path of entry for fumes is via the aircraft pressurisation and air conditioning systems.
The majority of passenger aircraft utilise bleed air from the engine or Auxiliary Power Unit to pressurize and heat or cool the aircraft cabin. As a consequence, any contaminants introduced into the engine/APU compressor prior to the point from which the bleed air is extracted may result in the appearance of corresponding fumes in the passenger cabin and flight deck.
Accidents and Incidents
Cabin air contamination
- A333, London Heathrow UK, 2016 (On 26 June 2016, thick white smoke suddenly appeared in the cabin of a fully loaded Airbus A330-300 prior to engine start with the door used for boarding still connected to the air bridge. An emergency evacuation initiated by cabin crew was accomplished without injury although amidst some confusion due to a brief conflict between flight crew and cabin crew instructions. The Investigation found that the smoke had been caused when an APU seal failed and hot oil entered the bleed air supply and pyrolysed. Safety Recommendations in respect of both crew communication and procedures and APU auto-shutdown were made.)
- E195, en-route, Irish Sea UK, 2008 (On 1 August 2008, an en-route Embraer 195 despatched with one air conditioning pack inoperative lost all air conditioning and pressurisation when the other pack’s Air Cycle Machine (ACM) failed, releasing smoke and fumes into the aircraft. A MAYDAY diversion was made to the Isle of Man without further event. The Investigation found that the ACM failed due to rotor seizure caused by turbine blade root fatigue, the same failure which had led the other air conditioning system to fail failure four days earlier. It was understood that a modified ACM turbine housing was being developed to address the problem.)
- DC93, en-route, Cincinnati OH USA, 1983 (On 2 June 1983, a DC9 aircraft operated by Air Canada was destroyed following an in-flight fire which began in one of the aircraft’s toilets. 23 passengers died in the accident.)
- E190, en-route, southwest of Turku Finland, 2017 (On 3 December 2017, an Embraer E190 en-route at FL310 was already turning back to Helsinki because of a burning smell in the flight deck when smoke in the cabin was followed by smoke in the flight deck. A MAYDAY was declared to ATC reporting “fire on board” and their suggested diversion to Turku was accepted. The situation initially improved but worsened after landing prompting a precautionary emergency evacuation. The Investigation subsequently attributed the smoke to a malfunctioning air cycle machine. Issues with inaccessible cabin crew smoke hoods and with the conduct and aftermath of the evacuation were also identified.)
- B763, Frankfurt Germany, 2007 (On 20 August 2007, at Frankfurt, while a Boeing 767-300 was taxiing to its parking position, thick smoke developed in the passenger cabin. All passengers and the crew were able to leave the aircraft at the gate without further incident.)
- Passenger Cabin Fire
- Aircraft Fire Risk from Battery-powered Items Carried on Aircraft
- Lithium-Ion Aircraft Batteries as a Smoke/Fire Risk
- Cabin Air Quality and Contamination
- An analysis of fumes and smoke events in Australian aviation ATSB (Australia), 2014
- Study of Reported Occurrences in Conjunction with Cabin Air Quality in Transport Aircraft BFU (Germany), 2014
- Cabin Operations Safety: Best Practices Guide 3rd Edition by IATA, 2017
- FAA SAFO 18003: Procedures for Addressing Odors, Smoke and/or Fumes in Flight, 2018