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Content source: ICAO ICAO


CFIT.: Controlled flight into or toward terrain - Inflight collision or near collision with terrain, water, or obstacle without indication of loss of control.

Usage Notes

  • CFIT is used only for occurrences during airborne phases of flight.
  • CFIT includes collisions with those objects extending above the surface (for example: towers, trees, power lines, cable car support, transport wires, power cables, telephone lines and aerial masts).
  • CFIT can occur during either Instrument Meteorological Conditions (Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC)) or Visual Meteorological Conditions (Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC)).
  • Includes instances when the cockpit crew is affected by visual illusions or degraded visual environment (e.g., black hole approaches and helicopter operations in brownout or whiteout conditions) that result in the aircraft being flown under control into terrain, water, or obstacles.
  • If control of the aircraft is lost (induced by crew, weather or equipment failure), do not use this category; use Loss of Control - Inflight (LOC-I) instead.
  • For an occurrence involving intentional low altitude operations (e.g., crop dusting, aerial work operations close to obstacles, Search and Rescue (SAR) operations close to water or ground surface) use the Low Altitude Operations (LALT) code instead of CFIT.
  • Do not use this category for occurrences involving intentional flight into/toward terrain. Code all collisions with obstacles during take-off and landing under CTOL. Code all suicides under Security Related (SEC) events.
  • Do not use this category for occurrences involving runway undershoot/overshoot, which are classified as Undershoot/Overshoot (USOS).
  • Includes flying into terrain during transition into forward flight.