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Because of the volume and variable integrity of global aviation safety data, analysis of safety data usually involves establishing a taxonomy for the data set. Therefore, any interpretation of these analyses needs to be mindful of the taxonomy used. Comparison of similar analyses based on different taxonomies can sometimes be deceptive. For example, statistics provided by Boeing include accidents involving only Western Built commercial jets over 60,000 lb MTOW. Such statistics therefore include most large commercial jets but do not necessarily provide an insight into the safety performance of the wider aviation system.  All of this means that when looking at statistics, it is important to know the taxonomies used.
 
Because of the volume and variable integrity of global aviation safety data, analysis of safety data usually involves establishing a taxonomy for the data set. Therefore, any interpretation of these analyses needs to be mindful of the taxonomy used. Comparison of similar analyses based on different taxonomies can sometimes be deceptive. For example, statistics provided by Boeing include accidents involving only Western Built commercial jets over 60,000 lb MTOW. Such statistics therefore include most large commercial jets but do not necessarily provide an insight into the safety performance of the wider aviation system.  All of this means that when looking at statistics, it is important to know the taxonomies used.
  
==Data Boundaries==
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==Performance Reports and Statistical Taxonomies==
'''Type of flight'''
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Accident:
*Databases used for statistical purposes normally include only events to aircraft undertaking flights for the purposes of commercial aviation to carry passengers cargo or mail. 
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ICAO defines an accident (link to accident article) as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked in which:
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- A person is fatally or seriously injured
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- The aircraft sustains damage or structural failure
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- The aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible
  
'''Injury Sustained'''
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Note: The following are not considered accidents:  experimental test flights, sabotage, hijacking, terrorism, or direct military action
* Fatality - death consequent upon an aircraft accident is classified by ICAO as such if it occurs within 30 days of the accident and this definition is usually adopted by others.
 
* Serious Injury - injury consequent upon an aircraft accident or serious incident is commonly classified as serious if it results in hospitalisation for more than 48 hours which commences within 7 days of the event.   
 
  
'''Extent of Aircraft Damage'''
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There are several ways to classify an accident.  These include classification by the level of damage incurred, by the extent of injuries caused, or by the cost of the damage to the aircraft. The following definitions are used in various classification taxonomies:
* Substantial Damage - usually taken as damage or structural failure which adversely affects the structural strength, performance ot flight characteristics of an aircraft and which would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component(s).  
 
  
'''Nature of Event'''
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- Damage
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• Destroyed:  The aircraft is not repairable, or, if repairable, the cost of repairs exceeds 50% of the cost of the aircraft when it was new
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• Substantial: Damage or failure that adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or flight characteristics of the aircraft, and which would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component.  Not considered in substantial damage are; engine failure or damage limited to an engine only, bent or dented skin, damage to landing gear (to include wheels and tires), flaps, or wingtips.
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• Minor: Damage that neither destroys the aircraft nor causes substantial damage.
  
The following classifications are typically employed:
 
* Accident" - as defined in ICAO Annex 13
 
* Major Accident – An accident in which any of the following conditions is met: The aircraft was destroyed; or there were multiple fatalities; or there was one fatality and the aircraft was substantially damaged.
 
* Fatal Accident - An accident that results in at least one  fatal injury, where death was not due to natural causes or self inflicted injuries, or injuries inflicted by other passengers, and was not due to a malicious act such as terrorism.
 
* Hull Loss – An aircraft is totally destroyed or assessed to have been damaged beyond economic repair. Assessment as a hull loss is always affected by the age (measured in any or all of years-since-new, cycles flown or landings made) of the damaged aircraft and sometimes by the concern of the operator to avoid the 'public declaration of a hull loss.
 
* Total Loss/Constructive Total Loss - Statistical data which originates in the insurance market is traditionally a very reliable source of data. Insurers use the terms "Total Loss" and "Constructive Total Loss" which is not quite the same as Hull Loss.
 
  
'''Geographical Boundary'''
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- Injury
* ICAO Regions are the most often used regional definition. The assignment of region to an accident may be the based on the location of the occurrence or on the state of the Operator as defined by their AOC.   
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• Fatal: An injury that results in death in the accident itself, or up to 30 days after the accident
* There is a particular difficulty with the 'definition' of Europe which may include, amongst other options ECAC, EU, EASA Member States or JAA. Political and regulatory evolution in Europe means that these definitions have themselves appeared, disappeared or varied over time.
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• Serious: An injury that requires more than 2 days of hospitalization up to 7 days after the accidentFracture of any bone (except simple fractures of the toes, fingers, or nose). Serious also includes injury to an internal organ, any muscle or tendon damage, any second or third degree burn, or any burn covering more than 5 percent of the body.
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• Minor: An injury that requires less than 2 days of hospitalization up to 7 days after the accident.
  
'''Aircraft Weight'''
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Accident Classifications: 
* For fixed wing aircraft, the main distinction employed is between jets and turboprops. In both cases. 5,700 kg / 12,500 lb is commonly used as a lower limit for inclusion in statistical databases. However, ICAO have now (2014) begun to include statistics for aircraft below 5700kg.
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Hull Loss Accident: An accident in which the aircraft damage is not repairable, or is damaged but not repaired.  Hull loss accidents include when the aircraft is missing, or if the wreckage is inaccessible.
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Major Accident:  An accident in which any of the following three conditions are met:
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- The aircraft is destroyed
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- There were multiple fatalities
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- There was one fatality and the aircraft sustained substantial damage
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Fatal Accident:  An accident causing one or more fatalities to occupants of the aircraft
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Substantial Damage Accident:  An accident in which the aircraft sustained substantial damage
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Serious Accident:  An accident in which either of the following two conditions are met:
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- A single fatality without substantial damage
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- At least one serious injury and aircraft substantially damaged
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Minor Accident: An accident in which the aircraft sustained minor damage
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Aircraft incident: An occurrence other than an accident that affects or could affect the safety of operations
  
'''Domicile of Aircraft Design'''
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Related Article
* Western/Eastern-built Aircraft - some statistics make this distinction or exclude the latter altogether because data for many operations of Eastern-built aircraft (those designed in CIS countries or in the Peoples Republic of China) have historically been unavailable or unreliable.
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Accident Classification
  
 
==Sources of Statistical Information==
 
==Sources of Statistical Information==

Revision as of 18:38, 24 July 2017

Article Information
Category: Safety Management Safety Management
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Content control: EUROCONTROL EUROCONTROL

Latest Published Statistical Summaries

Statistical Analysis of Commercial Aviation Accidents 1958-2016 - Airbus
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Commercial Aviation accidents 1958-2015, a summary by Airbus
ICAO 2016 Safety Review
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Boeing: Statistical Summary of Commercial Jet Airplane Accidents 1959-2015
Boeing STATSUM 1959-2015, published in 2016.
EASA Annual Safety Review 2016
EASA Annual Safety Review: 2016
UK CAA CAP1036 Global Fatal Accident Review 2002-2011
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IATA Safety Report 2016
IATA Safety Report 2016

Description

Because of the volume and variable integrity of global aviation safety data, analysis of safety data usually involves establishing a taxonomy for the data set. Therefore, any interpretation of these analyses needs to be mindful of the taxonomy used. Comparison of similar analyses based on different taxonomies can sometimes be deceptive. For example, statistics provided by Boeing include accidents involving only Western Built commercial jets over 60,000 lb MTOW. Such statistics therefore include most large commercial jets but do not necessarily provide an insight into the safety performance of the wider aviation system. All of this means that when looking at statistics, it is important to know the taxonomies used.

Performance Reports and Statistical Taxonomies

Accident: ICAO defines an accident (link to accident article) as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked in which: - A person is fatally or seriously injured - The aircraft sustains damage or structural failure - The aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible

Note: The following are not considered accidents: experimental test flights, sabotage, hijacking, terrorism, or direct military action

There are several ways to classify an accident. These include classification by the level of damage incurred, by the extent of injuries caused, or by the cost of the damage to the aircraft. The following definitions are used in various classification taxonomies:

- Damage • Destroyed: The aircraft is not repairable, or, if repairable, the cost of repairs exceeds 50% of the cost of the aircraft when it was new • Substantial: Damage or failure that adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or flight characteristics of the aircraft, and which would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component. Not considered in substantial damage are; engine failure or damage limited to an engine only, bent or dented skin, damage to landing gear (to include wheels and tires), flaps, or wingtips. • Minor: Damage that neither destroys the aircraft nor causes substantial damage.


- Injury • Fatal: An injury that results in death in the accident itself, or up to 30 days after the accident • Serious: An injury that requires more than 2 days of hospitalization up to 7 days after the accident. Fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of the toes, fingers, or nose). Serious also includes injury to an internal organ, any muscle or tendon damage, any second or third degree burn, or any burn covering more than 5 percent of the body. • Minor: An injury that requires less than 2 days of hospitalization up to 7 days after the accident.

Accident Classifications: Hull Loss Accident: An accident in which the aircraft damage is not repairable, or is damaged but not repaired. Hull loss accidents include when the aircraft is missing, or if the wreckage is inaccessible. Major Accident: An accident in which any of the following three conditions are met: - The aircraft is destroyed - There were multiple fatalities - There was one fatality and the aircraft sustained substantial damage Fatal Accident: An accident causing one or more fatalities to occupants of the aircraft Substantial Damage Accident: An accident in which the aircraft sustained substantial damage Serious Accident: An accident in which either of the following two conditions are met: - A single fatality without substantial damage - At least one serious injury and aircraft substantially damaged Minor Accident: An accident in which the aircraft sustained minor damage Aircraft incident: An occurrence other than an accident that affects or could affect the safety of operations

Related Article Accident Classification

Sources of Statistical Information



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