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Article Information
Content source: ICAO ICAO


APR: Approach - Instrument Flight Rules (IFR): From the Initial Approach Fix (IAF) to the beginning of the landing flare.
Visual Flight Rules (VFR): From the point of VFR pattern entry, or 1000 feet above the runway elevation, to the beginning of the landing flare.

This phase of flight includes the following sub-phases:

  • Initial Approach (IFR): From the IAF to the Final Approach Fix (FAF).
  • Final Approach (IFR): From the FAF to the beginning of the landing flare.
  • Circuit Pattern - Downwind (VFR): A flight path (normally 1,000 feet above the runway) which commences abeam the departure end of the runway and runs parallel to the runway in the direction opposite to landing, and terminates upon initiating the turn to base leg.
  • Circuit Pattern - Base (VFR): From start of turn at end of downwind leg until the start of the turn for final.
  • Circuit Pattern - Final (VFR): From the start of the turn to intercept the extended runway centerline, normally at the end of base leg, to the beginning of the landing flare. Includes VFR straight-in approaches.
  • Circuit Pattern - Crosswind (VFR): A flight path of the VFR traffic pattern, which is perpendicular to the landing runway, crosses the departure end of the runway, and connects with the downwind leg.
  • Missed Approach/Go-Around: From the first application of power after the crew elects to execute a missed approach or go-around until the aircraft re-enters the sequence for a VFR pattern (go-around) or until the aircraft reaches the IAF for another approach (IFR)

Usage Notes

A holding procedure executed at the IAF is included in the ENROUTE phase