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Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC)

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Visual Meteorological Conditions


Visual meteorological conditions (VMC) are the meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling equal to or better than specified minima. (ICAO Annex 2: Rules of the Air)

VMC are detailed in ICAO Annex 2. Essentially, they are:

  • When above 3,000ft or 1,000ft above terrain, whichever is higher:
    • 1500m horizontally and 1,000 ft vertically from cloud;
    • Flight visibility 5km below 10,000ft and 8km above 10,000 ft.
  • When below 3,000 ft or 1,000 ft above terrain, whichever is higher:
    • Clear of cloud and in sight of the surface;
    • Flight visibility 5km.

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