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UAS Remote Identification

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Drone Remote ID

Remote ID

Article Information
Category: Unmanned Aerial Systems Unmanned Aerial Systems
Content source: SKYbrary About SKYbrary
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Definitions

Unmanned aircraft system (UAS) Remote Identification, also referred to drone Remote ID, is defined by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) as the ability of a UAS or drone in flight to provide identification information that can be received by other parties.

The European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) defines 'direct remote identification’ as a system that ensures the local broadcast of information about an unmanned aircraft (UA) in operation, including the marking of the UA, so that this information can be obtained without physical access to the UA.

Description

The ability to remotely identify a UA or drone in flight is considered an important step in the development of commercial drone industry, in beyond visual line of sight operations and in integrating UAs or drones into commercial airspace.

Remote ID also is expected to lead to greater operator accountability because it will enable regulators, security and law enforcement authorities to identify the operators of drones flying in their jurisdictions. Remote ID and related data that is collected also should give a realistic picture of drone activity in a given area and to identify which drones are being operated in accordance with regulations and which are not. This is particularly important when it comes to drones operating in restricted airspace near aerodrome and other sensitive facilities.

The FAA has summarised some of the safety and security benefits of its proposed Remote ID regulations as follows and while these are specific to the U.S. they are applicable in other States too:

  • Provides situation awareness of UAS flying in the airspace … to other aircraft in the vicinity of those operations and airport operators.
  • Provides information to distinguish compliance UAS users from those potentially posing a safety or security risk.
  • Enables the FAA, national security agencies, and law enforcement entities to obtain situational awareness of UAS in the airspace … in near real-time.
  • Provides additional registration and notification requirements for identifying aircraft and promoting accountability and the safe and efficient use of the airspace.

Regulatory Requirements

The U.S. Department of Transportation and the FAA issued a Remote ID Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) on 31 December 2019 which detailed the technical requirements for Remote ID on unmanned aircraft systems operation in the United States. During the comment period, which ended on 2 March 2020, thousands of public comments on the proposed rules were received. Those comments will be considered and a final rule will be issued at an undetermined point in the future, but it is not expected in 2020.

In Europe, new UAS regulations go into effect at mid-year and include Remote ID requirements. UAS that are covered by the Remote ID requirement must have direct remote identification that:

  • Allows the upload of the UAS operator registration number in accordance with Article 14 of Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/947 and exclusively following the process provided by the registration system;
  • Ensures, in real time during the whole duration of the flight, the direct periodic broadcast from the UA using an open and documented transmission protocol, of the following data, in a way that they can be received directly by existing mobile devices within the broadcasting range:
    • the UAS operator registration number;
    • the unique physical serial number of the UA compliant with standard ANSI/CTA-2063;
    • the geographical position of the UA and its height above the surface or take-off point;
    • the route course measured clockwise from true north and ground speed of the UA; and
    • the geographical position of the remote pilot;
  • Ensures that the user cannot modify the data mentioned.

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Further Reading