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SE013 DIP - CFIT Prevention - ATC Training

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Article Information
Category: CAST SE Plan CAST SE Plan
Content source: CAST CAST
Content control: CAST CAST

SE-13 4/21/99

Implementation Plan for ATC Training - CFIT Prevention

Statement of Work: (SE-13)

Training procedures are presently in effect, re-emphasis to current procedures and or slight modifications to current procedures could be acted upon almost immediately.


Outcomes

To improve aviation safety by reinforcing current safety alert procedures and good Air Traffic operating practices.


Outputs

Publish an Air Traffic Bulletin (ATB) article (Appendix A). A verbal briefing will be given to all enroute and terminal Air Traffic Controllers on the history of the Commercial Aviation Safety Team and handbook paragraphs to review.


Relationship to Current Aviation Community Initiatives

Flight Safety Foundation has published an article on ATC communications. It does not specifically address this issue, and it is a related topic.


Performance Goals & Indicators for Outcomes/Outputs

  • Goal: Provide consistent issuance of Safety Alerts.
  • Goal: Provide quality On The Job Training (OJT) while not impacting the safety of the flying public.
  • Indicators: Initial Action: The use of Air Traffic Bulletins have been proven to be a reliable method to raise awarness of critical rules and regulations.  :*Followup Action: Use of safety alerts is covered yearly in refresher training and OJT operating practices are covered during facility evaluations, if improvement is needed follow-up action and management controls are required.
  • Goal: Increase the awareness of flight crew workload during departure/landing by using FMS fixes and precision approaches.
  • Indicators: User comments and a reduction in CFIT Accidents.


Lead Organization for Coordination

Air Traffic Operations (ATO-100)

Programmatic Approach

A review of the current regulations and orders was conducted. All of the initiatives were covered in current regulations and orders. It was determined that the best way to reinforce and review the orders was an Air Traffic Bulletin. This vehicle requires that every person controlling air traffic be verbally briefed on the content of the ATB.

Key Products and Milestones:

  • Review of current regulation and orders – [Jan-Feb 99] COMPLETED
  • Update current regulations and orders – [Feb 99-Feb 00] NOT REQUIRED
  • Initial Implementation Plan Considerations (Appendix B)– [March 99] COMPLETED
  • Write ATB – [March-April 99] COMPLETE
  • Coordinate ATB – [April 20, 1999] On Schedule
  • Publish ATB – [July 1, 1999] On Schedule

Schedule and Resources Graphic

Table: Key Products and Milestones
Item #Days Start Date End Date Resource
Item # Days Start End Resource
Develop Statement of Work 3d Wed 02/17/99 Fri 02/19/99 Ardy/Team
Identify Membership on Team 21d Wed 02/17/99 Wed 03/17/99 Ardy
Identify Skills Needed 1d Thu 03/18/99 Thu 03/18/99 Ardy
Determine Deliverables 22d Wed 02/17/99 Thu 03/18/99 JSIT Team
Identify Resources Needed 1d Thu 03/18/99 Thu 03/18/99 Ardy
Identify Follow-on Actions 1d Wed 02/17/99 Wed 02/17/99 Ardy
Onging Programs 1d Mon 02/22/99 Mon 02/22/99 Ardy
Determine Timeline 92d Wed 02/24/99 Thu 07/01/99
Review Current Regs/Handbooks 3d Wed 02/24/99 Fri 02/26/99 Ardy
Update Regs/Handbooks 1d Fri 02/26/99 Fri 02/26/99 Ardy
Write ATB 1d Wed 03/24/99 Wed 03/24/99 Ardy
Coordinate ATB 40d Fri 03/26/99 Thu 05/20/99 Ardy
Publish ATB 30d Fri 05/21/99 Thu 07/01/99 ATX
Coordinate with AAT 2d Thu 04/08/99 Fri 04/09/99 Ardy
Identify Interested Parties 1d Wed 03/17/99 Wed 03/17/99 Ardy/Team
Identify # of Meetings Needed 1d Wed 03/17/99 Wed 03/17/99 Ardy
Identify Assumptions 1d Wed 03/17/99 Wed 03/17/99 Ardy/Team
Identify Constraints/Obstacles 2d Tue 03/16/99 Wed 03/17/99 Ardy/Team
Produce Gnatt/PERT Chart 5d Fri 03/26/99 Thu 04/01/99 Ardy
Update Status 1d Mon 04/05/99 Mon 04/05/99 Ardy
Deterine Impact on Non-121 and International Applications 1d Fri 04/09/99 Fri 04/09/99 Ardy/Team

Plan / Execution Requirements

  • NATCA Representative [Identified and on board]
  • ATO – Coordination [Identified and on board]
  • ATX – Produce the ATB [Identified]

Risk Description

Low Risk. Only concern possible slip in ATB publishing schedule.

Risk Mitigation Plan

Consulted with NATCA before the ATB was put out for coordination. NATCA concurs with the ATB and does not have any major concerns.

Impact on Non-FAR Part 121 or International Applications

We will share the information and associated successes with our counterparts in the FAA International office.

ACTION: Request for Publication of Air Traffic Bulletin Article

ATO-100

ATX-10

Please incorporate the following articles into the next publication of the Air Traffic Bulletin.

“Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) Avoidance”

/*ET/ During the fall of 1997, the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST), a combined organization of the FAA, NASA, ALPA, ATA and airplane and engine manufactures dedicated to working together to improve aviation safety, chartered a team to look at CFIT accidents. Strategies and interventions to minimize the occurrence of CFIT were developed. The results were 9 project areas; one of them is Air Traffic control.

This will provide a review of the current handbook paragraphs associated with: Assisting Flight Crews with Situation Awareness, Safety Alerts, Minimum Safe Altitude Alerts, and On-the Job Training.

We need to emphasize the controller’s responsibility to assist the flight crew in situation awareness. FAAO 7110.65 Paragraph 5-1-10 States: “Inform an aircraft when it is observed in a position and on a track which will obviously cause the aircraft to deviate from its protected airspace area. If necessary, assist the aircraft to return to the assigned protected airspace. Paragraph 2-1-6 States: Issue a safety alert to an aircraft if you are aware the aircraft is in a position/attitude which, in your judgement, places it in unsafe proximity to terrain, obstructions, or other aircraft. Once the pilot informs you action is being taken to resolve the situation, you may discontinue the issuance of further alerts. Do not assume that because someone else has responsibility for the aircraft that the unsafe situation has been observed and the safety alert issued; inform the appropriate controller. Terrain/Obstruction Alert – Immediately issue/initiate an alert to an aircraft if you are aware the aircraft is at an altitude which, in your judgement, places it in unsafe proximity to terrain / obstructions. Issue the alert as follows: (identification) LOW ALTITUDE ALERT, CHECK YOUR ALTITUDE IMMEDIATELY, THE (as appropriate) MEA/MVA/MOCA/MIA IN YOUR AREA IS (altitude)…

The issuance of a safety alert is a first priority, recognition of situations of unsafe proximity may result from MSAW/E-MSAW/LAAS, Mode C, Conflict / Mode C intruder alert, or pilot report. Once the alert is issued, it is solely the pilot’s prerogative to determine what course of action, if any, will be taken.


With more aircraft equipped with Flight Management Systems, we need to use all available tools to establish aircraft position, don’t fixate on just DME. FAAO 7110.65 Paragraph 2-5-3 States: Describe fixes determined by reference to a radial/localizer/azimuth and distance from a VOR / DME / VORTAC / TACAN / ILS-DME or MLS as follows: a. When a fix is not named, state the name of the NAVAID followed by a specified radial / localizer / azimuth, and state the distance in miles followed by the phrase “mile fix”. b. When a fix is charted on a SID, STAR, Enroute chart, or approach plate, state the name of the fix. c. Use specific terms to describe a fix. Do not use expressions such as “passing Victor Twelve” or passing J Eleven.”

A recurring pattern in the reviewed accidents was the need for stabilized vertical guidance approaches. When available and practical clear aircraft for approaches with vertical guidance (ILS). FAAO 7110.65 Paragraph 4-8-1 States: Clear aircraft for “standard” or “special” instrument approach procedures only…An aircraft conducting an ILS/MLS approach when the glideslope/ glidepath is reported out of service shall be advised at the time an approach clearance is issued. SIAP’s shall commence at an initial approach fix or an intermediate approach fix if there is not an initial approach fix. Where adequate radar coverage exists, radar facilities may vector aircraft to the final approach course in accordance with paragraph 5-9-1. Except for vectors for visual approach, vectoring arriving aircraft tot intercept the final approach course: a. At least 2 miles outside the approach gate unless of the following exists: 1. When the report ceiling is at least 500’ above the MVA/MIA and the visibility is at least 3 miles, aircraft may be vectored closer than 21 miles outside the approach gate but no closer than the final approach fix. 2. If specifically requested by the pilot, aircraft may be vectored to intercept the final approach course inside the approach gate but no closer than the final approach fix. b. For a precision approach, at an altitude not above the glideslope/glidepath or below the minimum glideslope intercept altitude specified on the APC. c. For nonprecision approach, at an altitude which will allow descent in accordance with the published procedure.


In some of the accidents reviewed, On the Job Training (OJT)was being conducted and may have contributed to the accident. All OJT Instructors’s are reminded to maintain control and vigilance on the position.

In some cases non-rated controllers were operating a position unsupervised. FAA Order 7220.1 Paragraph 50 b. states: The individual may perform duties as a controller only at those sectors or positions at which they are qualified; otherwise, they are in training under the direct supervision of a controller qualified at the position being worked.


If you have questions or require further assistance, please contact Ardyth Williams at extension 78364.


Eric Harrell

Feasibility Ratings

Feasibility values defined: The CFIT JSIT assigned the following specific definitions to the 1-2-3 values under each of the Feasibility elements: Technical Feasibility - The ability of the project to take advantage of the current state of the technology in pursuing further development. 3 - Off-the-shelf technology, no development required 2 - Some development required, not currently in public use 1 - Major technology development effort required

Financial Feasibility - Should consider the total cost of the implementation, including the planning process. Financial feasibility also involves the capability of the performing organizations (FAA, Manufacturers, and Airlines/Operators) to make available the appropriate funds needed to implement the project. 3 - Less than $100M to implement 2 - Less than $250M, greater than $100M to implement 1 - Greater than $250M to implement

Sociological Feasibility - Requires an evaluation of the compatibility of project goals with the prevailing goals of the political system. Worthy projects may face heavy opposition due to political factors alone, while a less meritorious project may receive support due strictly to the vision that it is “politically correct.” 3 - positive push from political system 2 - neutral 1 - negative

Regulatory Feasibility - Should be evaluated against current rules and certification process. Could be a deterrent due to a long approval process. 3 - no policy change 2 - guidance change only (orders, handbooks, policy) 1 - rule change

Operational Feasibility - Involves the “practicality” of the project within the context of the operating environment, including NAS, ground operations, maintenance, inspection, etc. 3 - Minimal change to entities within the operating environment 2 - Modest change to operating environment 1 - Major change to operating environment

Schedule Feasibility - The ability of the project to contribute to achieving the goal in a selected timeframe. Must consider implementation schedule by project. 3 - less than 2 years to full implementation 2 - full implementation in 2-5 years 1 - longer than 5 years to full implementation


Table: Key Products and Milestones
JSAT # 'Intervention Technical Financial Sociological Regulatory Operational Schedule
#124 ATC should implement a Quality Assurance program to ensure adherence to established procedures. 3 3 3 3 3 3
# 12 Air Traffic service providers should emphasize in ATC training the controllers' potential in assisting the flight crew in improving their situation awareness. 2 3 2 3 3 3
# 10 Air Traffic service providers should train Air Traffic Controllers to use all available tools to establish aircraft position (example: don't fixate on just DME). 2 3 2 3 3 3
# 13 Air Traffic service providers should enhance ATC training to emphasize the dangers of rushed approaches and performance characteristics of modern jet transports. 2 3 2 3 3 3
#108 Air Traffic service providers should implement and/or review procedures to ensure ATC training does not create a hazard to flight operations. 3 3 2 3 3 3
# 11 Air Traffic service providers should implement procedures that ensure that ATC trainees are always supervised. 3 3 2 3 3 3

ATC CFIT Training

Explanation of Technical Rating

  1. 124 Rating – 3 Off the shelf technology, no development required

FAA Order 7210.56 outlines FAA’s current quality assurance program. This order clearly establishes the process for identification and resolution of system safety issues.

This Intervention should not require any further action.

  1. 12 Rating – 2 Some development required, not currently in public use

FAAO 7110.65 Paragraph 5-1-10 States: Inform an aircraft when it is observed in a position and on a track which will obviously cause the aircraft to deviate from its protected airspace area. If necessary, assist the aircraft to return to the assigned protected airspace. Paragraph 2-1-6 States: Issue a safety alert to an aircraft if you are aware the aircraft is in a position/attitude which, in your judgement, places it in unsafe proximity to terrain, obstructions, or other aircraft. Once the pilot informs you action is being taken to resolve the situation, you may discontinue the issuance of further alerts. Do not assume that because someone else has responsibility for the aircraft that the unsafe situation has been observed and the safety alert issued; inform the appropriate controller. Terrain/Obstruction Alert – Immediately issue/initiate an alert to an aircraft if you are aware the aircraft is at an altitude which, in your judgement, places it in unsafe proximity to terrain / obstructions. Issue the alert as follows: (identification) LOW ALTITUDE ALERT, CHECK YOUR ALTITUDE IMMEDIATELY, THE (as appropriate) MEA/MVA/MOCA/MIA IN YOUR AREA IS (altitude)…

The issuance of a safety alert is a first priority, recognition of situations of unsafe proximity may result from MSAW/E-MSAW/LAAS, Mode C, Conflict / Mode C intruder alert, or pilot report. Once the alert is issued, it is solely the pilot’s prerogative to determine what course of action, if any, will be taken.

FAAO 3120.4 is our Air Traffic Technical Training Order. 2-12 addresses Refresher Training. (b)(1)(a) states: Refresher Training shall include unusual situations, such as weather affecting flight, aircraft equipment failure and other types of emergencies. (c) includes Safety alerts and traffic advisories. (4) states: Operational personnel shall receive the following training in lost aircraft orientation annually. A combination of this annual refresher training and a possible article in the Air Traffic Bulletin should provide the needed emphasis.

  1. 10 Rating – 2 Some development required, not currently in public use

FAAO 7110.65 Paragraph 2-5-3 States: Describe fixes determined by reference to a radial/localizer/azimuth and distance from a VOR / DME / VORTAC / TACAN / ILS-DME or MLS as follows: d. When a fix is not named, state the name of the NAVAID followed by a specified radial / localizer / azimuth, and state the distance in miles followed by the phrase “mile fix”. e. When a fix is charted on a SID, STAR, Enroute chart , or approach plate, state the name of the fix. f. Use specific terms to describe a fix. Do not use expressions such as “passing Victor Twelve” or passing J Eleven.”

FAAO 3120.4 is our Air Traffic Technical Training Order. 2-12 addresses Refresher Training. (h) is “other topics identified and transmitted by Air Traffic and Regional Offices”. A combination of this annual refresher training and a possible article in the Air Traffic Bulletin should provide the needed emphasis.

  1. 13 Rating – 2 Some development required, not currently in public use

FAAO 7110.65 Paragraph 4-8-1 States: Clear aircraft for “standard” or “special” instrument approach procedures only…An aircraft conducting an ILS/MLS approach when the glideslope/ glidepath is reported out of service shall be advised at the time an approach clearance is issued. SIAP’s shall commence at an initial approach fix or an intermediate approach fix if there is not an initial approach fix. Where adequate radar coverage exists, radar facilities may vector aircraft to the final approach course in accordance with paragraph 5-9-1. Except for vectors for visual approach, vectoring arriving aircraft to intercept the final approach course: d. At least 2 miles outside the approach gate unless of the following exists: 3. When the report ceiling is at least 500’ above the MVA/MIA and the visibility is at least 3 miles, aircraft may be vectored closer than 21 miles outside the approach gate but no closer than the final approach fix. 4. If specifically requested by the pilot, aircraft may be vectored to intercept the final approach course inside the approach gate but no closer than the final approach fix. e. For a precision approach, at an altitude not above the glideslope/glidepath or below the minimum glideslope intercept altitude specified on the APC. f. For nonprecision approach, at an altitude which will allow descent in accordance with the published procedure.

FAAO 3120.4 is our Air Traffic Technical Training Order. 2-12 addresses Refresher Training. (h) is “other topics identified and transmitted by Air Traffic and Regional Offices”. An Air Traffic Bulletin or (h) in the 3120.4 are two options to emphasize this intervention.

  1. 108 Rating – 3 Off the shelf technology, no development required

Before a person may conduct OJT, they must have: a. certified for 6 months on the position b. current on the position c. recommended by the supervisor

Then a panel composed of a minimum of 2 people will consider the following attributes before it’s recommendation of the OJTI’s: a. Human relations skills b. Communications skills c. Motivation and attitude d. Objectivity e. Credibility

Then the names are forwarded to the Air Traffic Manager. The selecties then must successfully complete the approved FAA Air Traffic OJTI course. During this course, the students are briefed on the basics of instruction including the hazards of being in an instruction situation with live traffic. To ensure that the OJTI’s are performing to standards, the first line supervisor will give all OJTI’s an over the shoulder evaluation every 6 months while they are performing OJTI duties.

The regulations / evaluations are in place. This item could be included in an Air Traffic Bulletin addressing this whole issue.

  1. 11 Rating – 3 Off the shelf technology, no development required

FAA Order 7220.1 Paragraph 50 b. states: The individual may perform duties as a controller only at those sectors or positions at which they are qualified; otherwise, they are in training under the direct supervision of a controller qualified at the position being worked.

The regulations / evaluations are in place. This item could be included in an Air Traffic Bulletin addressing this whole issue.

Explanation of Financial Rating

All projects are “Less than 100 Million to implement”

Procedures in place. Produce an Air Traffic Bulletin outlining awareness of CFIT

Explanation of Sociological Rating

  1. 124 Positive push from political system

For years we have been judged on the heath of the AT system by our reporting and quality assurance programs

  1. 12 Neutral
  1. 10 Neutral
  1. 13 Neutral
  1. 108 Neutral
  1. 11 Neutral

Procedures in place. Produce an Air Traffic Bulletin outlining awareness of CFIT

Explanation of Regulatory Rating

All projects are “No policy change”

Procedures in place. Produce an Air Traffic Bulletin outlining awareness of CFIT

Explanation of Operational Rating

All projects are “Minimal change to entities within the operating environment”

Procedures in place. Produce an Air Traffic Bulletin outlining awareness of CFIT

Explanation of Schedule Rating

All projects are “Less than 2 years to full implementation”

Procedures in place. Produce an Air Traffic Bulletin outlining awareness of CFIT

Related Safety Enhancements

SE013: CFIT Prevention - ATC Training

Related Outputs