Fire in the Air
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|Category:||Fire Smoke and Fumes|
A fire which occurs while an aircraft is airborne.
Fire in the air is one of the most hazardous situations that a flight crew can be faced with. Without aggressive intervention by the flight crew, a fire on board an aircraft can lead to the catastrophic loss of that aircraft within a very short space of time. Once a fire has become established, it is unlikely that the crew will be able to extinguish it.
Time is critical
The following table from a UK CAA report in 2002 supports the generally held view that, from the first indication that there is a fire onboard the aircraft, the crew has on average approximately 17 minutes to get the aircraft on the ground.
- Engine Fire. An engine fire is normally detected and contained satisfactorily by the aircraft fire detection and suppression systems. However, in certain circumstances (e.g. an explosive breakup of the turbine), the nature of the fire is such that onboard systems may not be able to contain the fire and it may spread to the wing and/or fuselage. Where an engine fire has been successfully contained, there is still a risk that the fire may reignite and therefore it is still advisable for the crew to land the aircraft as soon as possible and allow fire crews to carry out a visual examination of the engine.
- Cabin Fire. A fire within the cabin will usually be detected early and be contained by the crew using onboard fire fighting equipment. As with an engine fire, it is still advisable to land the aircraft as soon as possible and carry out a detailed examination of the cause of the fire and any damage.
- Hidden Fire A hidden fire may be detected by onboard fire detection systems or by the crew or passengers noticing smoke or fumes, a hot spot on a wall or floor, or by unusual electrical malfunctions particularly when the systems are unrelated. This is the most dangerous type of fire for 2 reasons:
- Hidden fires are difficult to locate and access in order to fight them. The time delay may allow the fire to take hold and do considerable damage to the aircraft.
- A hidden fire may initially be difficult to confirm and the crew may be slow to initiate an emergency landing. The consequence of such a delay may be that the fire becomes non-survivable before the aircraft has an opportunity to land.
- Smoke & Fumes. Smoke can reduce visibility within the aircraft. An electrical fire in an aircraft typically generates a lot of thick white smoke which can render the flight crew blind, unable to see the instruments or see out of the windows. In such circumstances, unless the smoke can be cleared, the crew are unable to control the aircraft. Smoke and fumes from an in-flight fire are likely to be highly toxic and irritating to the eyes and respiratory system. Smoke and fumes may therefore quickly incapacitate the crew unless they take protective action.
- Heat. Heat from fires will affect aircraft systems and ultimately affect the structural integrity of the aircraft both of which will lead to Loss of Control
LAND AS SOON AS POSSIBLE
These, and related articles, do not consider the aspects of aircraft design which reduce the risk of in-flight fires, only the general principles and issues related to the safety of a flight once fire has broken out onboard.
- Swissair MD11, uncontrollable FIRE at night leading to LOSS OF CONTROL near Halifax, NS, Canada, 2 September 1998
- Loss of Cabin Pressurisation
- Boeing article: Flight Crew Response to In-Flight Smoke, Fire, or Fumes
- Boeing article: Reducing Smoke and Burning Odor Events
- FAA Advisory Circular 120-80A “In Flight Fires”
- Airbus FOBN Cabin Operations - Managing In-flight Fires
- ATSB Report: Evacuation Commands for Optimal Passenger Management
- UK CAA Paper 2002/01 A Benefit Analysis for Enhanced Protection from Fires in Hidden Areas on Transport Aircraft
- see also FAA "Lessons Learned from Transport Airplane Accidents": Uncontrolled Fire
RAeS and Air Pilots
- Smoke, fire and fumes in transport aircraft, past history, current risks and recommended mitigations - Part 1:References, Fifth Ed., 2018, Royal Aeronautical Society.
- Smoke, fire and fumes in transport aircraft, past history, current risks and recommended mitigations - Part 2:Training, Second Ed., 2018, Royal Aeronautical Society.
FAA Research Reports