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E195, vicinity Salzburg Austria, 2017
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|On 27 October 2017, an Embraer E195-200 was mishandled when a go around was initiated on short final at Salzburg in response to a windshear encounter. Thrust was unintentionally not increased when the climb was commenced and the error was only corrected over a minute after a stall warning triggered by a combination of low airspeed and high angle of attack had occurred. The Investigation is continuing and only an Interim Report has been published as of the end of 2019.|
|Actual or Potential
|Human Factors, Loss of Control, Weather|
|Aircraft||EMBRAER ERJ 190-200|
|Type of Flight||Public Transport (Passenger)|
|Origin||Frankfurt am Main Airport|
|Intended Destination||Salzburg Airport|
|Take off Commenced||Yes|
|Flight Phase||Missed Approach|
|Location - Airport|
|Airport vicinity||Salzburg Airport|
|Tag(s)||Procedural non compliance|
Flight Envelope Protection Activated
|Tag(s)||Low Level Windshear|
|Safety Net Mitigations|
|Malfunction of Relevant Safety Net||No|
|Stall Protection||Partially effective|
|Damage or injury||No|
|Causal Factor Group(s)|
On 27 October 2017, an Embraer 195 (OE-LWJ) being operated by Austrian Airlines on a scheduled international passenger flight from Frankfurt to Salzburg was in the final stages of an ILS approach at destination in day VMC when a go around was commenced because of a windshear encounter. The stall protection system was subsequently activated and after a recovery climb, a successful second approach was subsequently completed. There were no injuries to the 97 passengers and 5 crew members on board.
An Investigation is being carried out by the Civil Aviation Division of the Austrian Ministry of Transport Innovation and Technology Federal Safety Investigation Office (the Sicherheitsuntersuchungsstelle des Bundes - Bereich Zivilluftfahrt).
As of 31 December 2019, only an Interim Report containing a short summary of factual information relating to this Serious Incident under Investigation has been published in German without an English language translation (on 2 April 2019). The following account is based on an unofficial translation of this Interim Report. It appears that relevant recorded data from the FDR and/or QAR are available but the position regarding the availability of data from the CVR is unclear.
It was noted that the 44 year old Captain, who was acting as PF for the flight under investigation held a current E170 family type rating as well as a current Fokker 70/100 type rating and was also a current TRE for the Fokker 70/100. The 24 year old First Officer was rated only on type and had made his first flight on it just over four months previously. The usual information on pilot experience was not presented for either pilot.
It was established that at approximately 2.3 nm from touchdown during an ILS approach to Runway 15 at Salzburg, windshear was encountered at approximately 2140 feet QNH (equivalent to 729 feet aal) and a go around was initiated. Both thrust levers were pushed forward but the TOGA buttons were not also pressed so the autothrust system began to return the manually selected thrust to the VREF required for landing following an approach using a VAPP of VREF + 20. The increase in pitch made simultaneously with the forward thrust lever movement led to an increase in AoA to 13° which led the airspeed to reduce to 113 KCAS. This triggered a stall warning (stick shaker) which lasted “up to 3 seconds” at 740 feet agl but the prescribed response in the form of selecting TOGA thrust using the corresponding buttons was not made until “73 seconds after the first activation of the stall warning”.
Thereafter, the missed approach was followed by two holds after which positioning for another approach and its successful completion was followed 26 minutes after the initial attempt at commencing a go around by a landing on Runway 34 without further event.
The surface weather reports for Salzburg around the time of the event indicated that at around the time of the windshear encounter, a thunderstorm had been affecting the airport although it had not lasted long enough to be recorded in the METAR 15 minutes prior to this time or 15 minutes after it. However, although no SPECI was issued, in between these two reports, the surface wind had veered in direction from 250° to 310° and increased from 4 knots to 16 knots gusting to 28 knots. Thunderstorm activity at the airport had been included in the prevailing TAF and a local airport warning of thunderstorm likely “within the next hour” was noted as having been issued 5 minutes prior to the windshear encounter.