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Article Information
Category: Weather Weather
Content source: SKYbrary About SKYbrary
Content control: SKYbrary About SKYbrary
Tag(s) Climatic Phenomena


Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods.

Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get.

Regional Climate

The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification scheme, and that used throughout SKYbrary, was originally developed by Wladimir Köppen (see below).

Airport articles on SKYbrary include a brief summary of the climatology.

Certain regions of the world are known to present particular climatic challenges to aviation operations. SKYbrary contains a number of specific articles which summarise the climate of a region and the weather related safety threats to aviation:

Climatic Phenomena

SKYbrary contains articles on specific climatic phenomena which influence the global climate, for example El Nino, or which have a particular impact on the conduct of air operations across large parts of the globe, for example the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone.

Köppen Climate Classification

The Köppen classification depends on average monthly values of temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used form of the Köppen classification has five primary types labeled A through E. These primary types are A, tropical; B, dry; C, mild mid-latitude; D, cold mid-latitude; and E, polar. The five primary classifications can be further divided into secondary classifications such as rain forest, monsoon, tropical savanna, humid subtropical, humid continental, oceanic climate, Mediterranean climate, steppe, subarctic climate, tundra, polar ice cap, and desert.

Updated Köppen–Geiger climate map
   Af:equatorial climate
   Am:monsoon climate
   Aw:tropical savannah climate
   BWh:warm desert climate
   Bwk:cold desert climate
   Bsh:warm semi-arid climate
   Bsk:cold semi-arid climate
   Csa:warm Mediterranean climate
   Csb:temperate Mediterranean climate
   Cwa:humid subtropical climate
   Cwb:temperate China climate
   Cwc:cool China climate
   Cfa:warm oceanic climate/humid subtropical climate
   Cfb:temperate oceanic climate
   Cfc:cool oceanic climate
   Dsa:warm continental climate/Mediterranean continental climate
   Dsb:temperate continental climate/Mediterranean continental climate
   Dsc:cool continental climate
   Dsd:cold continental climate
   Dwa:warm continental climate/humid continental climate
   Dwb:temperate continental climate/humid continental climate
   Dwc:cool continental climate/subarctic climate
   Dwd:cold continental climate/subarctic climate
   Dfa:warm continental climate/humid continental climate
   Dfb:temperate continental climate/humid continental climate
   Dfc:cool continental climate/subarctic climate
   Dfd:cold continental climate/subarctic climate
   ET:tundra climate
   EF:ice cap climate

Climate and Climatic Phenomena articles on SKYbrary