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B762 / A310, Toronto Canada, 2001

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Summary
On 23 October 2001, at Toronto Pearson Airport, a B767 cleared for take-off was forced to reject the take-off when a tractor towing an A310 crossed the runway ahead of it. The tractor had been cleared to cross the active runway by ATC.
Event Details
When October 2001
Actual or Potential
Event Type
Human Factors, Runway Incursion
Day/Night Day
Flight Conditions On Ground - Normal Visibility
Flight Details
Aircraft BOEING 767-200ER
Operator Air Canada
Domicile Canada
Type of Flight Public Transport (Passenger)
Origin Toronto/Lester B. Pearson International Airport
Take off Commenced Yes
Flight Airborne No
Flight Completed No
Flight Phase Take Off
TOF
Flight Details
Aircraft AIRBUS A-310
Operator Air Transat
Domicile Canada
Type of Flight Not Recorded
Take off Commenced No
Flight Airborne No
Flight Completed No
Flight Phase Pushback/towing
PBT
Location - Airport
Airport Toronto/Lester B. Pearson International Airport
General
Tag(s) ATC Training,
Aircraft-aircraft near miss
HF
Tag(s) Ineffective Monitoring,
ATC Unit Co-ordination,
Violation,
Procedural non compliance,
ATC clearance error
RI
Tag(s) ATC error,
Incursion pre Take off,
Runway Crossing,
Towed aircraft involved,
Near Miss
Outcome
Damage or injury No
Aircraft damage None"None" is not in the list (Minor, Major, Hull loss) of allowed values for the "Aircraft damage" property.
Injuries None"None" is not in the list (Few occupants, Many occupants, Most or all occupants) of allowed values for the "Injuries" property.
Fatalities None"None" is not in the list (Few occupants, Many occupants, Most or all occupants) of allowed values for the "Fatalities" property. ()
Causal Factor Group(s)
Group(s) Air Traffic Management
Safety Recommendation(s)
Group(s) Air Traffic Management
Investigation Type
Type Independent

Description

On 23 October 2001, at Toronto Pearson Airport, a B767 Series cleared for take-off was forced to reject the take-off when a tractor towing an AIRBUS A-310 crossed the runway ahead of it. The tractor had been cleared to cross the active runway by ATC.

Discussion

The following is the summary from the official TSB (Canada) report:

"Avitec Tractor 197 was towing an Air Transat Airbus A310 aircraft from Terminal 3 on the east side of Toronto/Lester B. Pearson International Airport to the central de-icing facility on the west side of Runway 15L. The tractor driver had received and acknowledged authorization to tow via taxiway Sierra (which crosses Runway 15L) and taxiway Echo, to hold short of taxiway Tango. At the same time, Air Canada Flight 757, a Boeing 767-200 aircraft, was cleared to position on Runway 15L. A minute and a half later, Flight 757 was cleared for take-off. At that moment Tractor 197 was crossing the hold line on taxiway Sierra, proceeding to cross Runway 15L in accordance with his authorization. The tractor driver saw Flight 757 in position on the runway but did not perceive it to be in motion until he was fully onto the runway and in a position where he had no alternative but to continue to cross in order to vacate the runway as quickly as possible. After commencing their take-off, the flight crew of Flight 757 observed the tractor and tow entering the runway. They rejected the take-off, reaching a speed in excess of 90 kts166.68 km/h
46.26 m/s
approximately 2500 feet down the runway, 3500 feet from taxiway Sierra. When Tractor 197 cleared the runway, the aircraft had slowed to less than 40 kts74.08 km/h
20.56 m/s
and was 1000 feet from taxiway Sierra. Flight 757 cleared the runway at taxiway Sierra."

The report made the following conclusions regarding cause and contributing factors:

"...The north ground controller inadvertently cleared Tractor 197, with an Airbus A310 aircraft in tow, across the active runway at the same time as Flight 757 was cleared for take-off by the north tower (on-job trainee) controller. The north ground controller clearance to Tractor 197 did not contain an explicit instruction to 'cross' the runway as required by the Air Traffic Control Manual of Operations (ATC MANOPS), nor did the north ground controller co-ordinate the movement of Tractor 197 with the north tower controller.

Task saturation of the north ground controller, as a result of weather delays and a runway change, likely contributed to his momentary lapse of attention.

Airside vehicle operators are not required to stop and hold short of runways, as are pilots, if they do not have an explicit clearance from ATC to cross that specific runway. As a result, vehicle operators do not serve, as do pilots, as an independent defence against air traffic control error."

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