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B744, Gardermoen Norway, 2004

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Summary
On 21 September 2004, a Korean Air Boeing 747-400F experienced handling difficulties on take off due to the Centre of Gravity (CofG) being aft of the limit as a result of misloading.
Event Details
When September 2004
Actual or Potential
Event Type
Ground Operations, Loss of Control
Day/Night Day
Flight Conditions On Ground - Normal Visibility
Flight Details
Aircraft BOEING 747-400 (international, winglets)
Operator Korean Air
Domicile South Korea
Type of Flight Public Transport (Cargo)
Origin Oslo/Gardermoen Airport
Intended Destination Incheon International Airport
Take off Commenced Yes
Flight Airborne Yes
Flight Completed Yes
Flight Phase Take Off
TOF
Location - Airport
Airport Oslo/Gardermoen Airport
GND
Tag(s) Hold Loading"Hold Loading" is not in the list (Taxiway collision, On gate collision, Aircraft / Aircraft conflict, Aircraft / Person conflict, Aircraft / Vehicle conflict, Aircraft / Object or Structure conflict, ATC clearance error, Ground de/anti icing ineffective, Ground de/anti icing not available, Failure to De/anti Ice, ...) of allowed values for the "GND" property.,
Cargo Loading"Cargo Loading" is not in the list (Taxiway collision, On gate collision, Aircraft / Aircraft conflict, Aircraft / Person conflict, Aircraft / Vehicle conflict, Aircraft / Object or Structure conflict, ATC clearance error, Ground de/anti icing ineffective, Ground de/anti icing not available, Failure to De/anti Ice, ...) of allowed values for the "GND" property.
LOC
Tag(s) Aircraft Loading,
Temporary Control Loss,
Extreme Pitch
EPR
Tag(s) RFFS Procedures
Outcome
Damage or injury No
Aircraft damage None"None" is not in the list (Minor, Major, Hull loss) of allowed values for the "Aircraft damage" property.
Injuries None"None" is not in the list (Few occupants, Many occupants, Most or all occupants) of allowed values for the "Injuries" property.
Fatalities None"None" is not in the list (Few occupants, Many occupants, Most or all occupants) of allowed values for the "Fatalities" property. ()
Causal Factor Group(s)
Group(s) Aircraft Operation
Safety Recommendation(s)
Group(s) Aircraft Operation,
Airport Management
Investigation Type
Type Independent


Description

On 21 September 2004, a Korean Air Boeing 747-400F experienced handling difficulties on take off due to the Centre of Gravity (CofG) being aft of the limit as a result of misloading.

Synopsis

This is an extract of the summary from the Accident Investigation Board Norway (AIBN) serious incident report:

"On 21 September 2004, at time 1302, a B747-400F operated by Korean Air was taking off from Oslo Airport Gardermoen for a flight to Incheon International Airport, Seoul, Republic of Korea. During take-off run, the aircraft started to autorotate at approximately 120 Knots Calibrated Air Speed (KCAS) due to the actual Centre of Gravity (CG) being aft of the aft CG limit. The stabilizer remained steady as the aircraft continued to accelerate and became airborne at 165 KCAS and 11.5 degrees pitch attitude. After lift-off the nose attitude was increased to 12 degrees and then to 19 degrees. The Commander realised that the aircraft balance was wrong due to the far forward trim setting. The crew suspected a wrong CG location and contacted the company office through SATCOM. The crew was informed that the CG was out of limits for landing. A new CG location was received and the flight crew relocated some load pallets during flight. However, the CG was still aft of the aft limit.

During the approach briefing, the landing configuration and performance parameters were discussed to reduce the possibility of a tail strike during touchdown and landing rollout. Emergency equipment was requested to stand by. During the landing rollout at RKSI, the aircraft nose lifted at 60 kts111.12 km/h
30.84 m/s
and nose wheel steering was lost. The Commander stopped the aircraft on the runway and shut down all engines.

The aircraft was subsequently towed to the parking stand. The wrong CG location was caused by a mistake during loading. During load planning the Load Master mistook the Standard Operating Mass (SOM) Centre of Gravity (CG) Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC) percent number for the Index Unit (IU) number. Hence the aircraft was misloaded to a CG of 37.8% MAC, which was 4.8 % aft of the aft limit of 33 % MAC. The mistake was not discovered by the Load Master, SAS Cargo or Korean Air Supervisor. Nor was the mistake discovered by the Commander who accepted and signed the cargo loading manifest before take-off.

The aircraft took off from Oslo International Airport with the CG 4.8 % aft of the aft limit and landed at Incheon International Airport with the CG 7.2% aft of the certified aft limit. The landing incident was investigated by the Korean Accident Investigation Board (KAIB) after the aircraft landed at RKSI."

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