AP4ATCO - Drag - Types and Effects
From SKYbrary Wiki
- FAA Aircraft Weight and Balance Handbook, FAA-H-8083-1A, 2007.
- The following SKYbrary Articles:
Gain an understanding of:
- Types of drag
- Effect of drag
- Ways of reducing drag
In aerodynamics, drag refers to forces that oppose the relative motion of an object through the air. Drag always opposes the motion of the object and in an aircraft, is overcome by thrust.
Types of Drag
There are many different types of drag. The most commonly encountered are:
- Parasitic Drag, composed of
- Form Drag, which is the result of the aerodynamic resistance to motion due to the shape of the aircraft,
- Skin Friction Drag, which is due to the smoothness or roughness of the surfaces of the aircraft, and
- Interference Drag, which may occur where surfaces with different characteristics meet (e.g. wing and fuselage)
- Induced Drag, which is a secondary effect of the production of lift, and
- Wave Drag which comes into play when shock waves are developed close to the surface of the aircraft in transonic and supersonic flight.
Drag and Airspeed
Parasitic drag increases with the square of the airspeed, while induced drag, being a function of lift, is greatest when maximum lift is being developed, usually at low speeds. The diagram below shows the relationship of parasitic drag and induced drag to each other and to total drag.
There is an airspeed at which drag is minimum, and in theory, this is the maximum range speed; however, flight at this speed is unstable because a small decrease in speed results in an increase in drag, and a further fall in speed. In practice, for stable flight, maximum range is achieved at a speed a little above the minimum drag speed where a small speed decrease results in a reduction in drag.
Q1: Parasite Drag is sub-divided into ........., ............, and ................
Q2: Parasite Drag increases when airspeed increases True or False?
Q3: Well designed winglets can reduce the "spillage" of the airflow at the wingtip, which causes wing vortices, and therefore reduce the formation of induced drag by as much as:
- 5 %
- 10 %
- 20 %
- 40 %