ACAS Resolution and Traffic Advisories
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TCAS Resolution and Traffic Advisories
Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS) equipment provides two types of advisories to pilots: Resolution Advisories (RAs) and Traffic Advisories (TAs). These are defined as follows:
Resolution advisory (RA) An indication given to the flight crew recommending:
- a) a manoeuvre intended to provide separation from all threats; or
- b) a manoeuvre restriction intended to maintain existing separation.
Corrective RA. A resolution advisory that advises the pilot to deviate from the current flight path.
Preventive RA. A resolution advisory that advises the pilot to avoid certain deviations from the current flight path but does not require any change in the current flight path.
Traffic advisory (TA). An indication given to the flight crew that a certain intruder is a potential threat.
(ICAO Annex 10, vol. IV (Aeronautical Telecommunications - Surveillance and Collision Avoidance Systems), Fourth Edition, July 2007 - Definitions)
- Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS)
- Incorrect use of TCAS Traffic Display
- ACAS Training
- Loss of Separation
- ICAO Annex 10 Volume IV Chapter 4 and Attachment A ;
- ICAO Doc 4444: Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS-ATM) Chapter 15, Section 15.7.3;
- ACAS Guide - Airborne Collision Avoidance, December 2017
- Overview of ACAS II/TCAS II
- ACAS II Website
- Mode S and ACAS Programme website.
- Mode S and ACAS Programme Support.
- HindSight 12 - "TCAP: an altitude capture enhancement to prevent TCAS RAs" : by Paule Botargues.
- Hindsight 14 - "How can operational examples be used in training?" : by Stanislaw Drozdowski
- ACAS Bulletins
- Performance assessment of pilot compliance to Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) using Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) - Guidance Material, January 2019