The purpose of this Safety Enhancement is to reduce the risk of loss-of-control accidents by having Air Carriers and other training providers, as well as regulators, enhance acceptance, utilization and effectiveness of Crew Resource Management (CRM) principles on the flight deck by revising curriculum content and delivery. These principles should provide clear, unambiguous roles for the pilot flying (PF) and pilot monitoring (PM) in normal and non-normal operations.
A Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) study of 18 loss-of-control accidents and incidents showed that in many situations CRM was not effective when it was needed most. Additionally, the PM was often unable to clearly communicate the seriousness of the situation to effect a change in the behavior of the PF.
To reduce accidents and incidents due to loss of airplane state awareness (ASA), air carriers should integrate, and regulators should encourage, formal CRM training in initial and recurrent classroom and simulator sessions in accordance with the latest version of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) guidance material. This enhanced CRM Training should include, but not be limited to:
the importance of the team concept and recognition and impact of flight deck authority gradient
the responsibility of both pilots to effectively communicate information relating to the current or future state of the aircraft and any required corrective actions
situation awareness and decision making skills, and task prioritization
active PM roles with emphasis on detecting, challenging and correcting errors committed by the PF
employing “progressive intervention strategies” from communication to direct intervention
Air carriers have assessed their CRM policies in accordance with the guidance issued in Output 1. This closes Output 2 of the Safety Enhancement.
Air Carriers have implemented processes to solicit feedback for evaluating and assessing standard operating procedures (SOP) and revised crew resource management (CRM) and pilot monitoring (PM) training, This closes Output 4 of the Safety Enhancement.