Fire Smoke and Fumes
Fire Smoke and Fumes
Confirmed Fire on board an aircraft, especially when it is in flight, represents one of the most feared hazards in aviation. Fire in the air can ultimately lead to loss of control, either as a result of structural or control system failure, or again as a result of crew incapacitation; Fire on the ground can take hold rapidly and lead to significant casualties if evacuation and emergency response is not swift enough.
Smoke or Fumes, whether they are associated with Fire or not, can lead to passenger and crew incapacitation and will certainly raise concern and invite a response.
Finally, a Post Crash Fire, following an aircraft accident, accounted for approximately half of all fatalities in in the period 1999 - 2007 (UK CAP 776).
Articles in the Fire Smoke & Fumes category
- Aircraft Fire Detection Systems: Automatic systems for detecting aircraft fires.
- Aircraft Fire Extinguishing Systems: Onboard systems designed to extinguish fires which occur either in the air or on the ground.
- Halon Fire Extinguishers
- Engine Fire Protection
- Refuelling and Defuelling Risks: The kerosene fuel used by turbine engine aircraft has a higher flash/ignition point than the aviation gasoline used by piston engine aircraft but there are still potential hazards. The primary risk is unintended ignition of fuel vapour.
Fire in the Air
See Fire in the Air and guidance for flight crew and air traffic controllers:
Cabin Crew need to be especially alert to the possibility of the Aircraft Fire Risk from Battery-powered Items Carried on Aircraft
The special case of Wing Fire is usually the result of fuel fed fire originating directly or indirectly from the malfunction of engines embedded in the wing but may also arise when wing mounted engines suffer an uncontained failure and wing damage is caused by the ejected debris.
Fire in the aircaft cabin is covered in Passenger Cabin Fire
Accident and Serious Incident Reports
- Accident and Serious Incident Reports: FIRE: contains a selection of reports concerning events where Fire and/or Smoke and/or Fumes were a contributory factor.
- Airbus FOBN Cabin Operations - Cabin Smoke Awareness
- Airbus FOBN Cabin Operations - Managing In-flight Fire
- UK CAP 776 - Global Fatal Accident Review, 1999-2007
- Smoke, fire and fumes in transport aircraft, past history, current risks and recommended mitigations - Part 1:References, Fifth Ed., 2018, Royal Aeronautical Society.
- Smoke, fire and fumes in transport aircraft, past history, current risks and recommended mitigations - Part 2:Training, Second Ed., 2018, Royal Aeronautical Society.
- An analysis of fumes and smoke events in Australian aviation ATSB (Australia), 2014.
FAA Research Reports
- Effects of In-flight Exposure of Aluminium and Composite Fuselage Materals
- Aircraft Battery Fire Safety
- Cargo Fire Control by Depressurisation
- Contaminated Insulation Flammability
- Effectiveness of Hand-Held Extinguishers Against Hidden Cabin Fires
- The Fire Safety Hazard of the Use of Flameless Ration Heaters On Board Commercial Aircraft