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|Content source:||Flight Safety Foundation|
Most airlines and other aviation organisations specify minimum acceptable criteria for the continuation of an approach to land. These vary in detail but the following summary published by the Flight Safety Foundation is one view of the important considerations.
Their Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Briefing Note 7-1 suggests that "all flights must be stabilised by 1000 feet above airport elevation in IMC and 500 feet above airport elevation in VMC. An approach is stabilised when all of the following criteria are met:
- The aircraft is on the correct flight path
- Only small changes in heading/pitch are necessary to maintain the correct flight path
- The airspeed is not more than VREF + 20kts37.04 km/h
10.28 m/s indicated speed and not less than VREF
- The aircraft is in the correct landing configuration
- Sink rate is no greater than 1000 feet/minute; if an approach requires a sink rate greater than 1000 feet/minute a special briefing should be conducted
- Power setting is appropriate for the aircraft configuration and is not below the minimum power for the approach as defined by the operating manual
- All briefings and checklists have been conducted
- Specific types of approach are stabilized if they also fulfil the following:
- Unique approach conditions or abnormal conditions requiring a deviation from the above elements of a stabilized approach require a special briefing.
Other applications of the Stabilised Approach principle used outside North America do not necessarily distinguish between VMC and IMC approaches, which makes it possible to track compliance using OFDM.
Some Operators also specify aircraft status at a 'should' gate ahead of the 'must' gate envisaged by the FSF system. This is typically 500 feet above the 'must' gate, for example a 'should' gate at 1000ft agl followed by a 'must' gate at 500ft agl. Failure to satisfy the former requires that corrective action is feasible and taken whereas failure to satisfy the latter requires a go around.
Continuation of an unstabilised approach to land may result in an aircraft arriving at the runway threshold too high, too fast, out of alignment with the runway centre-line, incorrectly configured or otherwise unprepared for landing. This can result in aircraft damage on touch-down, or runway excursion and consequent injury or damage to the aircraft or airfield installations.
The existence of an appropriate procedure which allows flight crew to determine whether an approach is sufficiently stabilised to allow it to be continued at specified 'gates' with strict observance confirmed by automated tracking using the Operator's Flight Data Monitoring Programme. Note that if the Flight Safety Foundation recommendation that there should be different 'gates' for IMC and VMC is followed, then such tracking becomes impossible.
- An aircraft on approach to land is not stabilised after a late clearance to reduce speed. SOPs require the aircraft to go-around in the event of an unstabilised approach but the pilot continues the approach because of a desire to complete the flight on schedule, thus creating a signficant risk of consequential mishap affecting both the aircraft and its occupants.
- Adverse weather (e.g. strong or gusty winds, wind shear, turbulence).
- ATC pressure to maximise number of movements (e.g. high approach speed).
- Late change of runway.
- Commercial pressure to maintain schedule.
- Strict compliance with the stabilised approach principle by pilots.
- ATC awareness of factors within their control which can contribute to an unstabilised approach.
- Approach and Landing Accidents (ALA)
- Loss of Control
- Accident and Serious Incident Reports: RE
- European Action Plan for the Prevention of Runway Excursions (EAPPRE) Edition 1.0, January 2013.
- Go-Around Safety Forum, Brussels 2013: Findings and Conclusions
DGAC (France) has published three documents in the English language related to non-stabilised approaches.
Flight Safety Foundation
- ALAR Briefing Note 7.1 - Stabilized Approach
- ALAR Briefing Note 8.1 - Runway Excursions and Overruns
- Reducing the Risk of Runway Excursions - Report of the Runway Safety Initiative
- Runway Excursion Risk Awareness Tool
- Non-stabilized Approach After ATC-Requested Runway Change (OGHFA SE)
- Runway Overrun On Landing (OGHFA SE)
- Copies of the FSF ALAR Toolkit on CD may be obtained from the Flight Safety Foundation
Airbus Safety Library
- Runway Excursions - An ATC Perspective on Unstable Approaches
- Avoiding Unstable Approaches - Important Tips for ATCOs
- Unstable Approaches – ATC Considerations, January 2011
Flight Data Services Case Study