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The process by which a newly-built aircraft is thereafter kept in a condition where it remains airworthy - or in other words technically fit for flight. In the words of ICAO : “All of the processes ensuring that, at any time in its life, an aeroplane complies with the technical conditions fixed to the issue of the Certificate of Airworthiness and is in a condition for safe operation” (source- ICAO Document No 9713 - 1998). The ultimate responsibility for Continued Airworthiness is assigned in ICAO Annex 8 to the State of Design but the programme to achieve it is a matter for the State of Registry.
For more on concept of Continued Airworthiness, see a note prepared by the International Federation of Airworthiness.